Teaching learning interaction in classroom is indicated by the availability of various components when this interaction is going on. Those components are for example 1) the teaching objectives which are going to be achieved after the interactions ends, 2) the attendance of a teacher and students embodying the teaching learning interaction in the classroom, 3) the instructional materials in the form of students’ handbook, students’ work-sheet, students’ reference books, or supplementary books used to direct the students’ study to achieve the competence wished. 4) the teaching method applied in the classroom used to create a conducive interaction between the teacher and the students and vice versa and that among those students themselves, and 5) the evaluation- that is the short range evaluation held after a sub-topic or one topic ends and the long range evaluation held after one program terminates, which is used to consider and measure the students’ achievement. They all are the least prerequisites used to justify whether the interaction process has been conducted well or not. Accordingly, the fulfillment of them, namely teaching objectives, teacher and students, instructional materials, method, and evaluation (Depdikbud, 1994:3) become an immediate need or necessity for an every institution which is responsible for conducting an educational process.
The appropriate teaching objectives, either general teaching or specific teaching objectives can be investigated through each teacher individual’s lesson plan because both of which are formulated inside. Teachers, for the reason, must be accustomed to and skillful to compose them to produce the best teaching goals- the general and the specific- which are significantly different. The former shows the general skills which will be achieved and the latter describes the specific goals wanted, so the second one must be more practical. Teachers, therefore, must be able to identify the difference between them, and formulate them in the best way.
To evaluate that the objectives have been written down well, an institution through its head master is able to correct them by matching between the theme or the topic of instructional materials suggested by the current curriculum offered and the objectives stated in the plan. If the head master finds mistakes in the formulation, he commits to correct. He may also invite the teacher concerned to correct together and ask him/her to rewrite it, and this is his right to do so. Consequently, the head master must also be all round and skillful not only in regulating the institutional activities in general but also in improving the teaching preparation; this is the most practical than the former. Besides, he has to do with the regular correction of the lesson plan made by his staff.
Interactional dimension is also shown by the attendance of two performers- a teacher and his/her students. The teacher, despite, is the most responsible person because he/she commits to organize the class, therefore teacher absenteeism cannot be substituted by his/her students. In the most schools, classroom interaction is hardly going on if the teacher is absent.
To know whether a teacher and students have created mutual and multi dimensional interactions, a head master may undertake classroom supervision. He must do so to understand the best accomplishment of teaching learning interaction. As the lesson plan correction, the supervision must be conducted in regular and continual phases without having to wait for instruction given by his superior. In turn, he should initiate himself for this job has attached in his position as the top leader. This supervision is subjected to develop the quality of teaching learning interaction. To avoid misunderstanding, he needs to notify to all his teachers; however, he should conduct it continually. This is intended in order that the teachers are ready and prepare their teaching activities all the time. He may supervise the classrooms weekly but the classroom destination must be considered haphazardly. On Monday this week, he may come to class A first rather than class B, C, D, E, or F; on the same day in following week, he starts from class E, then B, D, A, F and ends by class C, and so forth.
In the current teaching learning method, the availability of instructional materials is so important to intensify the teaching learning interaction itself. These benefit teachers and students because the teachers need not write down materials on white or blackboard and ask their students to copy them. Writing and copying down the instructional materials from the boards is inefficient and time as well as energy consume.
In addition, although teachers have memorized and been skillful in organizing the topics which will be taught, instructional materials are still necessary to provide. This is at least addressed to students. Never mind whether the teachers are going to make use them as the main hand – out, reference, work sheet, or the supplementary materials, yet they need to make a good preparation taken from the materials at home. Without preparation they could not teach with self- confidence and elaborate the materials chronologically. This aims to cope with the wordiness. This is so important since each individual has this tendency. If the instructional materials are in hand, they can recheck whether their explanations are far apart from the lesson plan or not. Improvisation, therefore, does not mean the release of the self-control. They, of course, need to decorate the activity without looking over the students’ provision, namely they have right to receive proportional elaborations from professional teachers. The materials as a matter of fact are crucial to provide whatever their functions.
To present instructional materials well, teachers need the most select the most appropriate method to be applied. The methodological selection process commences when they propose lesson plan. Since there are sorts of methods they must be conscientious to identify before considering the use of a certain method. The main consideration of course is based on what kind of domains they want to teach and what kind of skills they emphasize and would like to achieve.
Exactly the method used has always attached when teaching learning process is being prepared, so the choice of the appropriate method is crucial step. It stars from the very beginning when teachers construct their lesson plan. They must have to consider what sort of methods they want to make use. It cannot be designed coincidently and directly when he class is going on, so they should choose accurately. In the consideration, they should realize that there is no best and worst method. It has its superiority as well as its inferiority. One method may be perfect for a certain material but it is counterproductive for the others. To adjust their appropriateness, teachers may consider- as previously explained- what kind of subjects, domains they want to achieve, namely cognitive, affective, or psycho-motor domains, the level of difficulties, and the students’ innate ability. To implant the affective domain they could not choose lecture or speech rather than demonstration or simulation, take fur example. Lecture, then, will be tedious for students and is not sufficient. Through this consideration, they could find the best method used or applied.
To examine, the effectiveness of teaching learning interaction and the achievement of the other instruments, teachers should evaluate the result. The questions are what the teacher and the students have interacted well comparably? What the teachers has presented instructional materials efficiently? What he has chosen the method used accurately and what the teaching objectives have been seemingly achieved? All those questions can be answered in the evaluation process.
Evaluation, then, is designed to know the goals of the final process. The terms of evaluation and process may elicit misunderstanding without further explanation because it can be viewed from different points of view. When teachers would like to examine the achievement of teaching learning process of sub topic, they should overview from the teaching learning evaluation process. The evaluation used is the test items enclosed in the lesson plan. Then if they like to evaluate the short range or the immediate result of one topic, the evaluation used is a formative test. It is usually conducted after a topic of instructional materials finishes. Finally, when program consisting of several topics, the teachers should conduct a final test which is undertaken quarterly or semiannual.
To know the level of the achievement, teachers should compare between the students who succeed and those who fail. If the students being successful is above than 75% (the general measurement level), the teaching learning process can be called successful; so they are only to remedy the rest of the failed students. Conversely if the achievement is just below 75%, they need to give remedial teaching for all.
written by : Mr. Ruwandi, MA
uploaded by: Marisa Fran Lina, S.PdI and Ratna Sari, S. PdI